Brief History of Singapore

About Singapore - Brief HistoryAbout Singapore - Brief History]About Singapore - Brief History

This page covers a brief introduction of Singapore history, independence and economic growth in the last century. Recommended book and source: Singapore 1994.


Founding of Modern Singapore

The British, who were extending their dominion in India, and whose trade with China in the second half of the 18th century was expanding, saw the need for a port of call in this region to refit, revitalise and protect their merchant fleet, as well as to forestall any advance by the Dutch in the East Indies. As a result, they established trading posts in Penang (1786) and Singapore (1819), and captured Malacca from the Dutch (1795).

In late l818, Lord Hastings, Governor-General of India, gave tacit approval to Sir Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen, to establish a trading station at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. On 29 January 1819, Raffles landed on the island of Singapore after having surveyed other nearby islands. The next day, he concluded a preliminary treaty with Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman to set up a trading post here. On 6 February 1819, a formal treaty was concluded with Sultan Hussein of Johor and the Temenggong, the de jure and defacto rulers of Singapore respectively.

Singapore proved to be a prized settlement. By 1820, it was earning revenue, and three years later, its trade surpassed that of Penang. In 1824, Singapore's status as a British possession was formalised by two new treaties. The first was the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of March 1824, by which the Dutch withdrew all objections to the British occupation of Singapore. The second treaty was made with Sultan Hussein and Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman in August, by which the two owners ceded the island out right to the British in return for increased cash payments and pensions.

The Straits Settlements

Singapore, together with Malacca and Penang, the two British settlements in the Malay Peninsula, became the Straits Settlements in 1826, under the control of British India. By 1832, Singapore had become the centre of government for the three areas. On 1 April 1867, the Straits Settlements became a Crown Colony under the jurisdiction of the Colonial Office in London.

With the advent of the steamship in the mid-1860s and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Singapore became a major port of call for ships plying between Europe and East Asia. And with the development of rubber planting, especially after the 1870s, it also became the main sorting and export centre in the world for rubber. Before the close of the 19th century, Singapore was experiencing unprecedented prosperity and trade expanded eightfold between 1873 and 1913. The prosperity attracted immigrants from areas around the region. By 1860, the population had grown to 80,792. The Chinese accounted for 61.9 per cent of the number; the Malays and Indians 13.5 and 16.05 per cent respectively; and others, including the Europeans, 8.5 per cent.

The peace and prosperity ended when Japanese aircraft bombed the sleeping city in the early hours of 8 December 1941. Singapore fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942, and was renamed Syonan (Light of the South). It remained under Japanese occupation for three and a half years.


Towards Self-Government

The British forces returned in September 1945 and Singapore came under the British Military Administration. When the period of military administration ended in March 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved. On 1 April 1946, Singapore became a Crown Colony. Penang and Malacca became part of the Malayan Union in 1946, and later the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

Postwar Singapore was a contrast to the prewar country of transient immigrants. The people, especially the merchant class, clamored for a say in the government. Constitutional powers were initially vested in the Governor who had an advisory council of officials and nominated non-officials. This evolved into the separate Executive and Legislative Councils in July 1947. The Governor retained firm control over the colony but there was provision for the election of six members to the Legislative Council by popular vote. Hence, Singapore's first election was held on 20 March 1948.

When the Communist Party of Malaya tried to take over Malaya and Singapore by force, a state of emergency was declared in June 1948. The emergency lasted for 12 years. Towards the end of 1953, the British government appointed a commission under Sir George Rendel to review Singapore's constitutional position and make recommendations for change. The Rendel proposals were accepted by the government and served as the basis of a new constitution that gave Singapore a greater measure of self-government.

The 1955 election was the first lively political contest in Singapore's history. Automatic registration expanded the register of voters from 75,000 to over 300,000, and for the first time, it included large numbers of Chinese, who had manifested political apathy in previous elections. The Labor Front won 10 seats. The Peoples Action Party (PAP), which fielded four candidates, won three seats. David Marshall became Singapore's first Chief Minister on 6 April 1955, with a coalition government made up of his own Labor Front, the United Malays National Organization and the Malayan Chinese Association .

Marshall resigned on 6 June 1956, after the breakdown of constitutional talks in London on attaining full internal self government. Lim Yew Hock, Marshall's deputy and minister for Labor became the Chief Minister. The March 1957 constitutional mission to London led by Lim Yew Hock was successful in negotiating the main terms of a new Singapore Constitution. On 28 May 1958, the Constitutional Agreement was signed in London.

Self-government was attained in 1959. In May that year Singapore's first general election was held to choose 51 representatives to the first fully elected Legislative Assembly. The PAP won 43 seats, gleaning 53.4 percent of the total votes. On June 3, the new Constitution confirming Singapore as a self-governing state was brought into force by the proclamation of the Governor, Sir William Goode, who became the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State). The first Government of the State of Singapore was sworn in on June 5, with Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's first Prime Minister.

The PAP had come to power in a united front with the communists to fight British colonialism. The communists controlled many mass organizations, especially of workers and students. It was an uneasy alliance between the PAP moderates and the pro communists, with each side trying to use the other for its own ultimate objective--in the case of the moderates, to obtain full independence for Singapore as part of a non-communist Malaya; in the case of the communists, to work towards a communist take-over.

The tension between the two factions worsened from 1960 and led to an open split in 1961, with the pro-communists subsequently forming a new political party, the Barisan Sosialis. The other main players in this drama were the Malayans, who, in 1961, agreed to Singapore's merger with Malaya as part of a larger federation. This was also to include British territories in Borneo, with the British controlling the foreign affairs, defense and internal security of Singapore.


The Malaysia Proposal

On 27 May 1961, the Malayan Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, proposed closer political and economic co-operation between the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei in the form of a merger. The main terms of the merger, agreed on by him and Lee Kuan Yew, were to have central government responsibility for defense, foreign affairs and internal security, but local autonomy in matters pertaining to education and labor. A referendum on the terms of the merger held in Singapore on 1 September 1962 showed the people's overwhelming support for PAP's plan to go ahead with the merger.

Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963, and consisted of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo (now Sabah). Brunei opted out. Indonesia and the Philippines opposed the merger. President Sukarno of Indonesia worked actively against it during the three years of Indonesian confrontation.


Independence

The merger proved to be short-lived. Singapore was separated from the rest of Malaysia on 9 August 1965, and became a sovereign, democratic and independent nation.

Independent Singapore was admitted to the United Nations on 21 September 1965, and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations on 15 October 1965. On 22 December 1965, it became a republic, with Yusof bin Ishak as the republic's first President.

Thereafter commenced Singapore's struggle to survive and prosper on its own. It also had to create a sense of national identity and consciousness among a disparate population of immigrants. Singapore's strategy for survival and development was essentially to take advantage of its strategic location and the favourable world economy.


Coming of Age

A massive industrialization program was launched with the extension of the Jurong industrial estate and the creation of smaller estates in Kallang Park, Tanjong Rhu, Redhill, Tiong Bahru and Tanglin Halt. The Employment Act and the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act were passed in 1968 to promote industrial peace and discipline among the workforce.

The Economic Development Board was reorganized in 1968 and the Jurong Town Corporation and the Development Bank of Singapore were set up in the same year In 1970, the Monetary Authority of Singapore was established to formulate and implement Singapore's monetary policies.

In 1979, after the shock of two oil crisis, the Government started a program of economic restructuring. This was achieved by modifying education policies, expanding technology and computer education, offering financial incentives to industrial enterprises and launching a productivity campaign.

Public housing was given top priority. New towns sprang up and Housing and Development Board apartments were sold at a low cost. To encourage home ownership, Singaporeans were allowed to use their Central Provident Fund savings to pay for these apartments.

With the British Government's sudden decision in 1967 to withdraw its armed forces from Singapore by the end of 1971, Singapore set out to build up its own defence forces. The Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute was established in 1966 and compulsory national service was introduced in 1967. A Singapore Air Defense Command and a Singapore Maritime Command were set up in 1969. In August 1967, Singapore joined Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand to form the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Singapore entered the 1970s as a politically stable state with a high rate of economic growth. The one-party Parliament that emerged from the 1968 general election became the pattern, with the PAP winning all seats in 1972,1976 and 1980. In the 1984 and 1991 general elections, the PAP won all but two and four seats respectively.

On 28 November 1990, a new chapter opened in Singapore's modern history Goh Cheok Tong became the second Prime Minster of Singapore when he took over the office from Lee Kuan Yew who resigned after having been Prime Minster since 1959.

On 12 August 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, son of Lee Kuan Yew became the third Prime Minister of Singapore. One of his major accomplishments was to propose the building of 2 Integrated Resorts (IR) in Singapore which creates a huge avenue for Singapore's economy. Prior to his appointment as PM, he served as Deputy Prime Minister (1991-2004), Minister of Finance, Minister of Trade & Industry.

Related Page

   
Re: Starting a Business - Questions about Common Seals and Stamps

Strong Eagle:
My judgment is that you can execute a deed without the corporate seal but you should check with an attorney before committing. There are two things:

Companies Act:

Execution of deeds
(5) A corporation may by writing under its common seal empower any person, either generally or in respect of any specified matters, as its agent or attorney to execute deeds on its behalf and a deed signed by such an agent or attorney on behalf of the corporation and under his seal, or, subject to subsection (7), under the appropriate official seal of the corporation shall bind the corporation and have the same effect as if it were under its common seal.



I see this as saying that a company can empower a person to execute deeds under their own signature and seal as opposed to having to use the company seal.

Also, refer to page 7 of this document: http://www.herbertsmithfreehills.com/-/ ... e%20d3.pdf

I would read this that the company can specify the manner in which a contract is represented as a deed, and indeed (no pun intended), this article suggests that seals will be eliminated entirely, and the document only needs to state that it is being executed as a deed.

http://www.cnplaw.com/cnpupdate/Media/C ... cution.pdf

Finally, this last page seems to support my supposition that an authorized person can sign a deed without the need for a company seal.

http://www.plchosted.com/multimedia/ima ... cution.pdf

Re: Anyone PR is Approved this month (April 2016)

sundaymorningstaple:
Boy, did they make a mistake giving you PR! :roll:

Re: Starting a Business - Questions about Common Seals and Stamps

Strong Eagle:
That's the UK... I thought you were talking about Singapore?

Finding more friends

oSooEun:
Hello,

I'm from Canada, just came to Singapore 3 days ago.
I am looking for friends who I can hangout with and know more about this city.

Re: 21M Chinese Canadian on internship @ NTU

oSooEun:
Hey,

I am from Toronto too. Just came Singapore 3 days ago.
Agreed, the weather is crazy hot.

Re: Anyone PR is Approved this month (April 2016)

kokmeng:
Hi for EP152 form certification from employer, there's a note state that the certification from employer should not be issued more than 2 weeks prior to the application completing the permanent resident formalities . Does it mean that of my pr formalities on 12 August 2016, the letter should dated on 29 July or before ?

Hope to clarify thanks

Re: RE: Re: RE: Re: Starting a Business - Questions about Common Seals and Stamps

neoex11:
The reason is that the warranty have to be 10 years, which contract executed under hand is limit to 6 years, whereas deed executed under seal valid till 12 years.

Sent from my ONE A2003 using Tapatalk


Can you give me a citation or reference for this, please?
http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wik ... under_hand

Sent from my ONE A2003 using Tapatalk

Re: RE: Re: Starting a Business - Questions about Common Seals and Stamps

Strong Eagle:
The reason is that the warranty have to be 10 years, which contract executed under hand is limit to 6 years, whereas deed executed under seal valid till 12 years.

Sent from my ONE A2003 using Tapatalk


Can you give me a citation or reference for this, please?

Re: RE: Re: Starting a Business - Questions about Common Seals and Stamps

neoex11:
Maybe you know something that I don't but I don't see that a seal, or lack of a seal, makes any difference whatsoever in the terms of the contract or its enforceability in the courts. In fact, I judge that only a very small set of contractual documents even need to have a signature to be enforceable.

E. Electronic Transactions Act

8.2.9 The Electronic Transactions Act (Cap 88, 1999 Rev Ed) (‘ETA’) clarifies that, except with respect to the requirement of writing or signatures in wills, negotiable instruments, indentures, declarations of trust or powers of attorney, contracts involving immovable property and documents of title (s 4(1)), electronic records may be used in expressing an offer or acceptance of an offer in contract formation (s 11). A declaration of intent between contracting parties may also be made in the form of an electronic record (s 12). The ETA also clarifies when an electronic record may be attributed to a particular person (s 13) and how the time and place of despatch and receipt of an electronic record are to be determined (s 15).

Maybe your buyer wants something that is chopped to look more "official" but as I read Singapore contract law, the absence of a chop in no way affects your obligations under the contractual promises you have made. Nor can I find any time frames that say a contract would be treated differently.

http://www.singaporelaw.sg/sglaw/laws-o ... /chapter-8
The reason is that the warranty have to be 10 years, which contract executed under hand is limit to 6 years, whereas deed executed under seal valid till 12 years.

Sent from my ONE A2003 using Tapatalk

Re: Starting a Business - Questions about Common Seals and Stamps

Strong Eagle:
Maybe you know something that I don't but I don't see that a seal, or lack of a seal, makes any difference whatsoever in the terms of the contract or its enforceability in the courts. In fact, I judge that only a very small set of contractual documents even need to have a signature to be enforceable.

E. Electronic Transactions Act

8.2.9 The Electronic Transactions Act (Cap 88, 1999 Rev Ed) (‘ETA’) clarifies that, except with respect to the requirement of writing or signatures in wills, negotiable instruments, indentures, declarations of trust or powers of attorney, contracts involving immovable property and documents of title (s 4(1)), electronic records may be used in expressing an offer or acceptance of an offer in contract formation (s 11). A declaration of intent between contracting parties may also be made in the form of an electronic record (s 12). The ETA also clarifies when an electronic record may be attributed to a particular person (s 13) and how the time and place of despatch and receipt of an electronic record are to be determined (s 15).

Maybe your buyer wants something that is chopped to look more "official" but as I read Singapore contract law, the absence of a chop in no way affects your obligations under the contractual promises you have made. Nor can I find any time frames that say a contract would be treated differently.

http://www.singaporelaw.sg/sglaw/laws-o ... /chapter-8

Good Tennis Coach?

golfboy:
Hi

I just moved to Singapore 2 weeks ago. I am looking for some good tennis coaches around the central area. I am a beginner tennis player. I have not been playing for a while. Do you know where I can find good tennis coaches around the central area (Farrer Park) of Singapore?

Re: Closing a Pte Ltd

Strong Eagle:
As a side note, if I were auditing your financials, I'd find it extremely odd that your administrative expense exactly matched the cash you took in. That's a highly unusual circumstance and would suggest that the admin expense is a cooked up number. But, I doubt anyone would look very closely on a wind up, as long as the financials are in balance, and with the changes I have suggested, they will be.

Re: Closing a Pte Ltd

Strong Eagle:
You have made a one dollar error and your balance sheet is out of balance. Let’s start at the beginning.

You incorporate the company 9/9/2014. The balance sheet for 30/9/2014 (or as of 9/9) should look like this:


Debit: Cash: 1
Credit: Paid Up Capital: 1


Assets
Cash: 1

Net Worth
Paid Up Capital: 1
Total Liabilities and Net Worth 1

Now you have business activity for the rest of the year. Let’s take a look at your income statement for 2014. It looks like


Income: 7,970
Expense: 2,088
Net Profit: 5,882

But this is double entry bookkeeping… and therefore there must be corresponding balance sheet accounts affected. Since you have no liabilities, all your expenses must have been paid for in cash. And since there is no cash end of period, your journal entries must be:


Credit: Income: 7,970
Debit: Cash: 2,087
Debit: Receivables: 5,883
AND
Debit: Admin Expense: 2,088
Credit: Cash: 2,088


Assets
Cash: 0
Receivables: 5,883
Total Assets: 5,883

Liabilities: 0

Net Worth
Paid Up Capital: 1
Retained Earnings – current period: 5,882
Total Liabilities and Net Worth: 5,883

Using these numbers, your cash flow statement for 2014 is correct… you generated -$1 of cash after paying your admin expenses. You are using the indirect cash flow method. Under the direct method:


Cash from Operating Activity
Cash receipts from customers: 2,087
Cash paid for expenses: -2,088
Cash generated from operations: -1

Cash from Financing Activities
Sale of Shares: 1
Cash generated from financing: 1

Net Increase/Decrease Cash: 0

So… 2014 is OK… everything works. But your 2015 and 2016 reports do not work properly. You apparently converted 5,883 worth of receivables to cash, and then issued a dividend of 5,882. And now, your balance sheet is out of balance for 2015.

If you want a zero net worth account to wrap up the company (and you do), then your journal transactions should have been:


Debit: Cash: 5,883
Credit: Receivables: 5,883 (converting receivables to cash)
Credit: Cash: 5,883
Debit: Retained Earnings - Dividends Paid: 5,883


Assets
Cash: 0
Receivables: 0
Total Assets: 0

Liabilities: 0

Net Worth
Paid Up Capital: 1
Retained Earnings – Prior period: 5,882
Retained Earnings/Dividends paid – Current Period: -5,883
Total Liabilities and Net Worth: 0

And this changes your cash flow statement for 2015. You have that dollar unaccounted for.


Operating Activities: 0
Cash from Receivables: 5,883
Cash Paid in Dividends: 5,883
Net Increase/Decrease Cash: 0

Now you are in balance and can get rid of that stupid dollar.

In the alternative, you could issue yourself dividends for 5,882 but then you would have to leave $1 in your cash account to balance equity and assets, and then your company is not zeroed out and therefore you cannot wind it up.

Since you have already claimed a 5,882 dividend you can change expenses by a dollar, or revenue by a dollar and get an in balance set of books that way.

Re: SIA cabin crew

Timelikethis:


Hey! I'm starting on 20 Sep too!

Re: Korean speaking?

cyruslaguna:
Hello!

This is Cyrus and I'm Singaporen. I do speak Korean. Have left you a PM.