Brief History of Singapore

About Singapore - Brief HistoryAbout Singapore - Brief History]About Singapore - Brief History

This page covers a brief introduction of Singapore history, independence and economic growth in the last century. Recommended book and source: Singapore 1994.


Founding of Modern Singapore

The British, who were extending their dominion in India, and whose trade with China in the second half of the 18th century was expanding, saw the need for a port of call in this region to refit, revitalise and protect their merchant fleet, as well as to forestall any advance by the Dutch in the East Indies. As a result, they established trading posts in Penang (1786) and Singapore (1819), and captured Malacca from the Dutch (1795).

In late l818, Lord Hastings, Governor-General of India, gave tacit approval to Sir Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen, to establish a trading station at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. On 29 January 1819, Raffles landed on the island of Singapore after having surveyed other nearby islands. The next day, he concluded a preliminary treaty with Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman to set up a trading post here. On 6 February 1819, a formal treaty was concluded with Sultan Hussein of Johor and the Temenggong, the de jure and defacto rulers of Singapore respectively.

Singapore proved to be a prized settlement. By 1820, it was earning revenue, and three years later, its trade surpassed that of Penang. In 1824, Singapore's status as a British possession was formalised by two new treaties. The first was the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of March 1824, by which the Dutch withdrew all objections to the British occupation of Singapore. The second treaty was made with Sultan Hussein and Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman in August, by which the two owners ceded the island out right to the British in return for increased cash payments and pensions.

The Straits Settlements

Singapore, together with Malacca and Penang, the two British settlements in the Malay Peninsula, became the Straits Settlements in 1826, under the control of British India. By 1832, Singapore had become the centre of government for the three areas. On 1 April 1867, the Straits Settlements became a Crown Colony under the jurisdiction of the Colonial Office in London.

With the advent of the steamship in the mid-1860s and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Singapore became a major port of call for ships plying between Europe and East Asia. And with the development of rubber planting, especially after the 1870s, it also became the main sorting and export centre in the world for rubber. Before the close of the 19th century, Singapore was experiencing unprecedented prosperity and trade expanded eightfold between 1873 and 1913. The prosperity attracted immigrants from areas around the region. By 1860, the population had grown to 80,792. The Chinese accounted for 61.9 per cent of the number; the Malays and Indians 13.5 and 16.05 per cent respectively; and others, including the Europeans, 8.5 per cent.

The peace and prosperity ended when Japanese aircraft bombed the sleeping city in the early hours of 8 December 1941. Singapore fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942, and was renamed Syonan (Light of the South). It remained under Japanese occupation for three and a half years.


Towards Self-Government

The British forces returned in September 1945 and Singapore came under the British Military Administration. When the period of military administration ended in March 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved. On 1 April 1946, Singapore became a Crown Colony. Penang and Malacca became part of the Malayan Union in 1946, and later the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

Postwar Singapore was a contrast to the prewar country of transient immigrants. The people, especially the merchant class, clamored for a say in the government. Constitutional powers were initially vested in the Governor who had an advisory council of officials and nominated non-officials. This evolved into the separate Executive and Legislative Councils in July 1947. The Governor retained firm control over the colony but there was provision for the election of six members to the Legislative Council by popular vote. Hence, Singapore's first election was held on 20 March 1948.

When the Communist Party of Malaya tried to take over Malaya and Singapore by force, a state of emergency was declared in June 1948. The emergency lasted for 12 years. Towards the end of 1953, the British government appointed a commission under Sir George Rendel to review Singapore's constitutional position and make recommendations for change. The Rendel proposals were accepted by the government and served as the basis of a new constitution that gave Singapore a greater measure of self-government.

The 1955 election was the first lively political contest in Singapore's history. Automatic registration expanded the register of voters from 75,000 to over 300,000, and for the first time, it included large numbers of Chinese, who had manifested political apathy in previous elections. The Labor Front won 10 seats. The Peoples Action Party (PAP), which fielded four candidates, won three seats. David Marshall became Singapore's first Chief Minister on 6 April 1955, with a coalition government made up of his own Labor Front, the United Malays National Organization and the Malayan Chinese Association .

Marshall resigned on 6 June 1956, after the breakdown of constitutional talks in London on attaining full internal self government. Lim Yew Hock, Marshall's deputy and minister for Labor became the Chief Minister. The March 1957 constitutional mission to London led by Lim Yew Hock was successful in negotiating the main terms of a new Singapore Constitution. On 28 May 1958, the Constitutional Agreement was signed in London.

Self-government was attained in 1959. In May that year Singapore's first general election was held to choose 51 representatives to the first fully elected Legislative Assembly. The PAP won 43 seats, gleaning 53.4 percent of the total votes. On June 3, the new Constitution confirming Singapore as a self-governing state was brought into force by the proclamation of the Governor, Sir William Goode, who became the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State). The first Government of the State of Singapore was sworn in on June 5, with Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's first Prime Minister.

The PAP had come to power in a united front with the communists to fight British colonialism. The communists controlled many mass organizations, especially of workers and students. It was an uneasy alliance between the PAP moderates and the pro communists, with each side trying to use the other for its own ultimate objective--in the case of the moderates, to obtain full independence for Singapore as part of a non-communist Malaya; in the case of the communists, to work towards a communist take-over.

The tension between the two factions worsened from 1960 and led to an open split in 1961, with the pro-communists subsequently forming a new political party, the Barisan Sosialis. The other main players in this drama were the Malayans, who, in 1961, agreed to Singapore's merger with Malaya as part of a larger federation. This was also to include British territories in Borneo, with the British controlling the foreign affairs, defense and internal security of Singapore.


The Malaysia Proposal

On 27 May 1961, the Malayan Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, proposed closer political and economic co-operation between the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei in the form of a merger. The main terms of the merger, agreed on by him and Lee Kuan Yew, were to have central government responsibility for defense, foreign affairs and internal security, but local autonomy in matters pertaining to education and labor. A referendum on the terms of the merger held in Singapore on 1 September 1962 showed the people's overwhelming support for PAP's plan to go ahead with the merger.

Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963, and consisted of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo (now Sabah). Brunei opted out. Indonesia and the Philippines opposed the merger. President Sukarno of Indonesia worked actively against it during the three years of Indonesian confrontation.


Independence

The merger proved to be short-lived. Singapore was separated from the rest of Malaysia on 9 August 1965, and became a sovereign, democratic and independent nation.

Independent Singapore was admitted to the United Nations on 21 September 1965, and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations on 15 October 1965. On 22 December 1965, it became a republic, with Yusof bin Ishak as the republic's first President.

Thereafter commenced Singapore's struggle to survive and prosper on its own. It also had to create a sense of national identity and consciousness among a disparate population of immigrants. Singapore's strategy for survival and development was essentially to take advantage of its strategic location and the favourable world economy.


Coming of Age

A massive industrialization program was launched with the extension of the Jurong industrial estate and the creation of smaller estates in Kallang Park, Tanjong Rhu, Redhill, Tiong Bahru and Tanglin Halt. The Employment Act and the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act were passed in 1968 to promote industrial peace and discipline among the workforce.

The Economic Development Board was reorganized in 1968 and the Jurong Town Corporation and the Development Bank of Singapore were set up in the same year In 1970, the Monetary Authority of Singapore was established to formulate and implement Singapore's monetary policies.

In 1979, after the shock of two oil crisis, the Government started a program of economic restructuring. This was achieved by modifying education policies, expanding technology and computer education, offering financial incentives to industrial enterprises and launching a productivity campaign.

Public housing was given top priority. New towns sprang up and Housing and Development Board apartments were sold at a low cost. To encourage home ownership, Singaporeans were allowed to use their Central Provident Fund savings to pay for these apartments.

With the British Government's sudden decision in 1967 to withdraw its armed forces from Singapore by the end of 1971, Singapore set out to build up its own defence forces. The Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute was established in 1966 and compulsory national service was introduced in 1967. A Singapore Air Defense Command and a Singapore Maritime Command were set up in 1969. In August 1967, Singapore joined Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand to form the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Singapore entered the 1970s as a politically stable state with a high rate of economic growth. The one-party Parliament that emerged from the 1968 general election became the pattern, with the PAP winning all seats in 1972,1976 and 1980. In the 1984 and 1991 general elections, the PAP won all but two and four seats respectively.

On 28 November 1990, a new chapter opened in Singapore's modern history Goh Cheok Tong became the second Prime Minster of Singapore when he took over the office from Lee Kuan Yew who resigned after having been Prime Minster since 1959.

On 12 August 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, son of Lee Kuan Yew became the third Prime Minister of Singapore. One of his major accomplishments was to propose the building of 2 Integrated Resorts (IR) in Singapore which creates a huge avenue for Singapore's economy. Prior to his appointment as PM, he served as Deputy Prime Minister (1991-2004), Minister of Finance, Minister of Trade & Industry.

Related Page

   
Re: PR chances for Japanese

Strong Eagle:
Hi JunJun,

I will try to answer your original question about your chances for PR. Without knowing all the factors that the ICA likes to consider in granting PR, I'd say:

The positive:







The negative:






Although Singapore seems to like to grant PR's to technical people with degrees, I still think you've got a good chance because you are running a business which may/might eventually become yours... in any event, it's a family business. It keeps you tied down in Singapore. You have a reason to stay.

My sense is also that having a small business is good... you are less likely to be made redundant by some large MNC when it cuts costs or moves operations. And again, running what is essentially your own business provides you an incentive to stay... it is less likely that you will be transferred out for a promotion.

I judge that the nature of your business is will also be considered to be beneficial to Singapore, even though it isn't a tech business. Not everyone in Singapore is a PMET and you offer "average" people a job. It's also the kind of business that will have staying power... the need for auto parts isn't going to go away.

Now, I could be completely wrong, and the only way to find out is to make application for PR and see what happens. Unlike a lot of people who post about PR on this board, you meet the minimum qualifications of time in country and minimum number of tax assessments. That's a positive right there.

If you do apply for PR, I'd make a point of putting together a business history and a business plan. It's what I did. If you can, emphasize the hiring of Singaporeans, and the use of Singaporean firms and banks in support of your business, for example, accounting firms, secretarial services, package delivery firms... you get the idea. The point is to strengthen your hand by showing that you know what you are doing, and that your business is viable, now and into the future.

Finally, ignore BBCWatcher's comments to you. He is simply wrong. You have a complete right to be a director in a company for which the EP has been issued to you. Your EP makes you ordinarily resident in Singapore. You don't need any other kind of rented director.

Also, ignore BBCWatcher's comments about being a "real director" versus a "Director of Sales". ACRA doesn't care what you call yourself... manager, CEO, president, chief grunt... if you have the primary management function within the company, you are a director for all purposes under the law.

Also, have a good laugh about BBCWatcher's comments about your work history, especially the part about "past 10 years of your Employment History." Clearly, at age 22, you graduated from high school at age 18 and have been working ever since. You don't need 10 years, and if you want you could list part time jobs as a youth to bolster yourself. Of course, if you've been a runner for the Yakuza since age 10, maybe BBCWatcher has a point.

Good luck... hope you are successful... let us know how things turn out.

Re: PR chances for Japanese

JunJun1993:
Thank you guys for giving lots of opinions and adivices.

Re: 2nd Rejection, now Pending?

quantabit:
I simply asked question that was not answered before to a few people. Apology if this is considered spammy. Won't happen again ;)

Re: 2nd Rejection, now Pending?

sundaymorningstaple:
quanatabit, so far all I see is a smart aleck who has made 24 posts, in less than 24 hours, contributing absolutely SFA to this forum. In fact you registered 5 years ago and today, 5 years later to the date, decide to spam the board with useless and senseless garbage. Give us one solid reason why your existence on this board should be allowed to continue.

moderator

Re: Applying for PR next week.

stend15:
ecureilx : Do I need to learn the ingredients of Singapore sling too ? ;)

Re: Applying for PR next week.

stend15:
OMG !! SMS has replied to my post...you have legendary status my good Sir !

I was going to ask what you think about my chances of a +ve PR result. I've read that you have an uncanny ability to predict correctly. Ofcourse I will not be overly happy or, more likely, overly sad regarding what you say but it is good to get some feedback.

Regards.

Re: PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

sundaymorningstaple:



Tic...Toc...Tic...Toc...


Re: RE: Re: PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

ecureilx:

I know the 3 guys don't even bother with anything outside work.

And as mentioned, volunteering or donation of blood has no impact of late.

Re: PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

quantabit:
Cool thanks

PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

jamie9vardy:


Volunteer work no longer gives you the brownie points. The authorities know how this has been abused in the past.

Also, one important consideration is the baggage you carry or may carry with you i.e. parents and/or siblings who are dependent on you.

Thanks for the insights. But more baggage equals more social ties or more burden (to the society)?

Family/social tie is a positive only when it's with an SC (maybe certain PR). It becomes a burden when you bring the whole 'kampung' of yours over when you obtain PR. This is not a welfare state.

Okay, you should start going through those PR-related threads as suggested by SF.

Re: PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

quantabit:


Volunteer work no longer gives you the brownie points. The authorities know how this has been abused in the past.

Also, one important consideration is the baggage you carry or may carry with you i.e. parents and/or siblings who are dependent on you.

Thanks for the insights. But more baggage equals more social ties or more burden (to the society)?

Re: PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

jamie9vardy:


Volunteer work no longer gives you the brownie points. The authorities know how this has been abused in the past.

Also, one important consideration is the baggage you carry or may carry with you i.e. parents and/or siblings who are dependent on you.

Re: PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

quantabit:


If you read through the PR related threads on the forum (2-3 of them is enough), you will automatically know and won't ask us.

If you know the answer to my question please do share!

Re: PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

singaporeflyer:


If you read through the PR related threads on the forum (2-3 of them is enough), you will automatically know and won't ask us.

Re: PR Rejected last year and plan to reapply next month

quantabit:
Perhaps the one got approved did more volunteer work? I am curious to know what is the deciding factor in this case too.