Brief History of Singapore

About Singapore - Brief HistoryAbout Singapore - Brief History]About Singapore - Brief History

This page covers a brief introduction of Singapore history, independence and economic growth in the last century. Recommended book and source: Singapore 1994.

Founding of Modern Singapore

The British, who were extending their dominion in India, and whose trade with China in the second half of the 18th century was expanding, saw the need for a port of call in this region to refit, revitalise and protect their merchant fleet, as well as to forestall any advance by the Dutch in the East Indies. As a result, they established trading posts in Penang (1786) and Singapore (1819), and captured Malacca from the Dutch (1795).

In late l818, Lord Hastings, Governor-General of India, gave tacit approval to Sir Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen, to establish a trading station at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. On 29 January 1819, Raffles landed on the island of Singapore after having surveyed other nearby islands. The next day, he concluded a preliminary treaty with Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman to set up a trading post here. On 6 February 1819, a formal treaty was concluded with Sultan Hussein of Johor and the Temenggong, the de jure and defacto rulers of Singapore respectively.

Singapore proved to be a prized settlement. By 1820, it was earning revenue, and three years later, its trade surpassed that of Penang. In 1824, Singapore's status as a British possession was formalised by two new treaties. The first was the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of March 1824, by which the Dutch withdrew all objections to the British occupation of Singapore. The second treaty was made with Sultan Hussein and Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman in August, by which the two owners ceded the island out right to the British in return for increased cash payments and pensions.

The Straits Settlements

Singapore, together with Malacca and Penang, the two British settlements in the Malay Peninsula, became the Straits Settlements in 1826, under the control of British India. By 1832, Singapore had become the centre of government for the three areas. On 1 April 1867, the Straits Settlements became a Crown Colony under the jurisdiction of the Colonial Office in London.

With the advent of the steamship in the mid-1860s and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Singapore became a major port of call for ships plying between Europe and East Asia. And with the development of rubber planting, especially after the 1870s, it also became the main sorting and export centre in the world for rubber. Before the close of the 19th century, Singapore was experiencing unprecedented prosperity and trade expanded eightfold between 1873 and 1913. The prosperity attracted immigrants from areas around the region. By 1860, the population had grown to 80,792. The Chinese accounted for 61.9 per cent of the number; the Malays and Indians 13.5 and 16.05 per cent respectively; and others, including the Europeans, 8.5 per cent.

The peace and prosperity ended when Japanese aircraft bombed the sleeping city in the early hours of 8 December 1941. Singapore fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942, and was renamed Syonan (Light of the South). It remained under Japanese occupation for three and a half years.

Towards Self-Government

The British forces returned in September 1945 and Singapore came under the British Military Administration. When the period of military administration ended in March 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved. On 1 April 1946, Singapore became a Crown Colony. Penang and Malacca became part of the Malayan Union in 1946, and later the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

Postwar Singapore was a contrast to the prewar country of transient immigrants. The people, especially the merchant class, clamored for a say in the government. Constitutional powers were initially vested in the Governor who had an advisory council of officials and nominated non-officials. This evolved into the separate Executive and Legislative Councils in July 1947. The Governor retained firm control over the colony but there was provision for the election of six members to the Legislative Council by popular vote. Hence, Singapore's first election was held on 20 March 1948.

When the Communist Party of Malaya tried to take over Malaya and Singapore by force, a state of emergency was declared in June 1948. The emergency lasted for 12 years. Towards the end of 1953, the British government appointed a commission under Sir George Rendel to review Singapore's constitutional position and make recommendations for change. The Rendel proposals were accepted by the government and served as the basis of a new constitution that gave Singapore a greater measure of self-government.

The 1955 election was the first lively political contest in Singapore's history. Automatic registration expanded the register of voters from 75,000 to over 300,000, and for the first time, it included large numbers of Chinese, who had manifested political apathy in previous elections. The Labor Front won 10 seats. The Peoples Action Party (PAP), which fielded four candidates, won three seats. David Marshall became Singapore's first Chief Minister on 6 April 1955, with a coalition government made up of his own Labor Front, the United Malays National Organization and the Malayan Chinese Association .

Marshall resigned on 6 June 1956, after the breakdown of constitutional talks in London on attaining full internal self government. Lim Yew Hock, Marshall's deputy and minister for Labor became the Chief Minister. The March 1957 constitutional mission to London led by Lim Yew Hock was successful in negotiating the main terms of a new Singapore Constitution. On 28 May 1958, the Constitutional Agreement was signed in London.

Self-government was attained in 1959. In May that year Singapore's first general election was held to choose 51 representatives to the first fully elected Legislative Assembly. The PAP won 43 seats, gleaning 53.4 percent of the total votes. On June 3, the new Constitution confirming Singapore as a self-governing state was brought into force by the proclamation of the Governor, Sir William Goode, who became the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State). The first Government of the State of Singapore was sworn in on June 5, with Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's first Prime Minister.

The PAP had come to power in a united front with the communists to fight British colonialism. The communists controlled many mass organizations, especially of workers and students. It was an uneasy alliance between the PAP moderates and the pro communists, with each side trying to use the other for its own ultimate objective--in the case of the moderates, to obtain full independence for Singapore as part of a non-communist Malaya; in the case of the communists, to work towards a communist take-over.

The tension between the two factions worsened from 1960 and led to an open split in 1961, with the pro-communists subsequently forming a new political party, the Barisan Sosialis. The other main players in this drama were the Malayans, who, in 1961, agreed to Singapore's merger with Malaya as part of a larger federation. This was also to include British territories in Borneo, with the British controlling the foreign affairs, defense and internal security of Singapore.

The Malaysia Proposal

On 27 May 1961, the Malayan Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, proposed closer political and economic co-operation between the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei in the form of a merger. The main terms of the merger, agreed on by him and Lee Kuan Yew, were to have central government responsibility for defense, foreign affairs and internal security, but local autonomy in matters pertaining to education and labor. A referendum on the terms of the merger held in Singapore on 1 September 1962 showed the people's overwhelming support for PAP's plan to go ahead with the merger.

Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963, and consisted of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo (now Sabah). Brunei opted out. Indonesia and the Philippines opposed the merger. President Sukarno of Indonesia worked actively against it during the three years of Indonesian confrontation.


The merger proved to be short-lived. Singapore was separated from the rest of Malaysia on 9 August 1965, and became a sovereign, democratic and independent nation.

Independent Singapore was admitted to the United Nations on 21 September 1965, and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations on 15 October 1965. On 22 December 1965, it became a republic, with Yusof bin Ishak as the republic's first President.

Thereafter commenced Singapore's struggle to survive and prosper on its own. It also had to create a sense of national identity and consciousness among a disparate population of immigrants. Singapore's strategy for survival and development was essentially to take advantage of its strategic location and the favourable world economy.

Coming of Age

A massive industrialization program was launched with the extension of the Jurong industrial estate and the creation of smaller estates in Kallang Park, Tanjong Rhu, Redhill, Tiong Bahru and Tanglin Halt. The Employment Act and the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act were passed in 1968 to promote industrial peace and discipline among the workforce.

The Economic Development Board was reorganized in 1968 and the Jurong Town Corporation and the Development Bank of Singapore were set up in the same year In 1970, the Monetary Authority of Singapore was established to formulate and implement Singapore's monetary policies.

In 1979, after the shock of two oil crisis, the Government started a program of economic restructuring. This was achieved by modifying education policies, expanding technology and computer education, offering financial incentives to industrial enterprises and launching a productivity campaign.

Public housing was given top priority. New towns sprang up and Housing and Development Board apartments were sold at a low cost. To encourage home ownership, Singaporeans were allowed to use their Central Provident Fund savings to pay for these apartments.

With the British Government's sudden decision in 1967 to withdraw its armed forces from Singapore by the end of 1971, Singapore set out to build up its own defence forces. The Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute was established in 1966 and compulsory national service was introduced in 1967. A Singapore Air Defense Command and a Singapore Maritime Command were set up in 1969. In August 1967, Singapore joined Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand to form the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Singapore entered the 1970s as a politically stable state with a high rate of economic growth. The one-party Parliament that emerged from the 1968 general election became the pattern, with the PAP winning all seats in 1972,1976 and 1980. In the 1984 and 1991 general elections, the PAP won all but two and four seats respectively.

On 28 November 1990, a new chapter opened in Singapore's modern history Goh Cheok Tong became the second Prime Minster of Singapore when he took over the office from Lee Kuan Yew who resigned after having been Prime Minster since 1959.

On 12 August 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, son of Lee Kuan Yew became the third Prime Minister of Singapore. One of his major accomplishments was to propose the building of 2 Integrated Resorts (IR) in Singapore which creates a huge avenue for Singapore's economy. Prior to his appointment as PM, he served as Deputy Prime Minister (1991-2004), Minister of Finance, Minister of Trade & Industry.

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I realized that no one starts this topic, let me starts the ball rolling. I got to know this from Xiaxue's blog.
*p.s I'm not a big fan of her, sometimes the products that she recommended are pretty good*

I know it is in malaysia, we heard story how unsafe, basically more ghost story.
I don't think thailand is that safe too, yet people went to thailand. I'm not saying it is not good, but i have friends who did in thailand and i don't like the outcome. So im checking out malaysia.

I have mono eyelid, i went to check out the consultation which cost RM190. For once, I thought no harm checking out. The cost of the surgery is pretty reasonable (but not that cheap)

I'm more interested in the outcome. So have anyone did it before? Let's share your experience here.

Sprichst du Deutsch?

Hi all! 23 F/local here. I'm keen on learning German and right now I'm just starting on some simple books/ language apps.. Would love to have some German friends who could help me a little along the way! Thanks:)

Re: Chat group

Hi! How do I join?:)

Female travel buddy only

Hi All

Am looking for female travel buddy to Australia coming mid or end August.

Pm me if you're keen! :):)

Re: ECP - Good Area for 26M Single guy?

Here the template:

- your budget: 3000SGD
- your workplace/s: Raffles Place
- the size and/or type of property that you are seeking: 2 bedroom flat, condo with swimming pool and gym facilities
- will you have a car here? No
- proximity to transport required: No more than 5 minutes to a bus or a MRT stop by walk. No more than 5 minutes bus to MRT.

Nice to have:
- will you need to be able to say walk to the local shops, a library, your doctor, a market, and so on?
Yes - I would need to be able to walk to eateries/etc... since I rarely cook.
- access to any specific sport, social, and recreation facilities? Jogging and eventually football/basketball court.

Your current home and commute:
- are you already a city dweller? I live close to the city center of my city, 10 minutes tram from it.
- what is the size and type (apartment, house+garden etc) of your current home? Apartment, 42 square meters.
- what are any current commute times like? Approximately 35 minutes door to door.

Re: Random thoughts thread

Oh that's typical. 'Anyone who is anything' in France likely learned English from the age of 11 and up. Most are proficient, many are fluent. But bizarrely claiming they don't speak any is part of 'their charm' lol. It's perhaps a facet of the cultural arrogance that they try and force you to speak French, then feign not to understand you either.
OIC re: the luggage, the 'short-connection' thing. Yes that can be rough on a short-trip, always waiting for your bags to eventually catch up with you.
Yes the more traditional food down in Hungary is 'heavy'. Lot's of rich creamy sauces etc. If you wanted to stereotype E/Euro food it would be starchy/heavy and so on. At least down in Hungary they often have some spice going on too.

Re: RE: Re: The 55 age trap for housing

BBCW: Do you know if it is possible to pay back the CPF monies used for property without actually selling the property associated with the CPF monies? I can't find an answer to this on the CPF website strangely (the advantage is that an individual could remove any CPF claim to sale of the property in the future by repaying any monies used - it's something I've thought about for some time).

One final comment on the property and age scenario - apart from Japan which allows mortgages to be passed onto descendants I see a real problem developing in Australia (and the UK) where young people simply can't get into the property market in time... saving a 10% or 20% downpayment and then taking on a 35 year mortgage needs to happen quickly if they want to be able to pay it off before retirement. Too many people missing out and now trying to buy post 40.... which leaves less than 20 years available for repayment (in Australia and Singapore banks do not extend mortgages past the age of 65 AFAIK).
If you plan it really well, you should be able to buy a property with straight cash. I am 36 yr old now and my networth with is entirely liquid fixed deposits and mutual funds is equivalent to $600k SGD. If I was a Singaporean, I could buy an EC 3 bedroom for full cash. It is even more cheaper in the UK(outside London) and in Australia. If people cant save at least 50% for a down payment in their 40s, something is really wrong with them. I am not even a big earner. I earn 100k a year and save 50k.

Sent from my Redmi Note 2 using Tapatalk

Re: Random thoughts thread

i don't know what profiling they did by using a bored bubble gum chewing lady claiming she didn't know english, no fingerprints nothing lol.
it got delayed cause my connecting flight was less than 30 mins after my plane landed in paris. they sent it to my hotel lol, everything appeared intact. they also put in a mustafa style bag tie lol

the goulash is great and so are all the pastries and the beer, however the food is rather heavy im trying to choose the least loaded with calories.

Re: Random thoughts thread

'Welcome to France. We guarantee your authentic French-style experience will begin before getting here, at check-in in fact' ;)
Perhaps AF took your luggage off for a thorough inspection, hence it got delayed and wasn't on your actual flight?
There are quite a few ports of entry in the EU where immigration in the intra-EU channel is deserted. Same goes for customs, which is often seemingly unmanned. Perhaps they rely on 'profiling' more these days...

ps. Glad you're enjoying it. Goulash, beer and cakes next? ;)

Re: Random thoughts thread

2. i hit the wrong amount on the atm machine in hungary and withdrew more forints than i needed.
so im paying for everything and trying to use it all up.

3. Buda > Pest, though i am staying in the Pest part. i went on the hop on hop off bus, lovely place I love the sights , scenery and the clean fresh air, something i haven't experienced in a long time.

Re: Random thoughts thread

update so far:
1. Air France are absolute twats, the interrogated me and wanted to see papers proving my intention to travel to Europe and this happened in Singapore! no airline has asked for that info in 10 years of my flying around. the reason they wanted this info was apparently because if they had to deport me back in case of "issues" they wanted to make sure i was sufficiently funded. this was well further befuddling because they wanted to see my invitation letter not my finances, also i had a return air ticket which was already paid for which disproved their fck all theory.
Ironically at Paris, a bored looking woman chewing gum didn;t even look at my face and stamped my passport and said she didn't know english and that i should hurry up for my connecting flight.
in Budapest there wasn't even a customs official in sight. and Air france delayed my baggage. A full formal complaint in on order.

Re: ECP - Good Area for 26M Single guy?

Did you look at the 'Where should I live' FAQ/template? It's a Sticky topic in this sub part of the forum. It's just as it is you're enquiring about one building, and asking if it fits well vs your wishes, many of which are unstated.
It's often better to start by, via the FAQ, outlining your circumstances and needs, then asking for suggestions. That can yield one or more candidate neighbourhoods and possibly several buildings to then compare vs each other.

I've never lived out on the East Coast, but been over that way now and again esp for the East Coast Park, and watersports. The seafood centres on the coast. And the F+B scene, pubs etc around Joo Chiat. All of those aspects I thoroughly enjoy; but that's about the depth of my knowledge of that side of the island. There are some other East Coast residents here though, so hopefully they can give you their thoughts.

Re: ECP - Good Area for 26M Single guy?

I gave a look to that and that is why I think pricewise it is very good.
What do you think about the area considering my age etc..?

Re: ECP - Good Area for 26M Single guy?

URA records two rentals in that building this past year, but it's not a big complex. Both took place in April 15. Size 1200-1300. So similar to your option. One at $3200, the other at $3350.
Don't know how well the link might or might not work if I copy and paste it... ... rch.action

Re: Recipes

Meanwhile, I'm currently enjoying watching this ->
And good viewing it is proving so far, highly entertaining; informative too :)