Brief History of Singapore

About Singapore - Brief HistoryAbout Singapore - Brief History]About Singapore - Brief History

This page covers a brief introduction of Singapore history, independence and economic growth in the last century. Recommended book and source: Singapore 1994.

Founding of Modern Singapore

The British, who were extending their dominion in India, and whose trade with China in the second half of the 18th century was expanding, saw the need for a port of call in this region to refit, revitalise and protect their merchant fleet, as well as to forestall any advance by the Dutch in the East Indies. As a result, they established trading posts in Penang (1786) and Singapore (1819), and captured Malacca from the Dutch (1795).

In late l818, Lord Hastings, Governor-General of India, gave tacit approval to Sir Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen, to establish a trading station at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. On 29 January 1819, Raffles landed on the island of Singapore after having surveyed other nearby islands. The next day, he concluded a preliminary treaty with Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman to set up a trading post here. On 6 February 1819, a formal treaty was concluded with Sultan Hussein of Johor and the Temenggong, the de jure and defacto rulers of Singapore respectively.

Singapore proved to be a prized settlement. By 1820, it was earning revenue, and three years later, its trade surpassed that of Penang. In 1824, Singapore's status as a British possession was formalised by two new treaties. The first was the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of March 1824, by which the Dutch withdrew all objections to the British occupation of Singapore. The second treaty was made with Sultan Hussein and Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman in August, by which the two owners ceded the island out right to the British in return for increased cash payments and pensions.

The Straits Settlements

Singapore, together with Malacca and Penang, the two British settlements in the Malay Peninsula, became the Straits Settlements in 1826, under the control of British India. By 1832, Singapore had become the centre of government for the three areas. On 1 April 1867, the Straits Settlements became a Crown Colony under the jurisdiction of the Colonial Office in London.

With the advent of the steamship in the mid-1860s and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Singapore became a major port of call for ships plying between Europe and East Asia. And with the development of rubber planting, especially after the 1870s, it also became the main sorting and export centre in the world for rubber. Before the close of the 19th century, Singapore was experiencing unprecedented prosperity and trade expanded eightfold between 1873 and 1913. The prosperity attracted immigrants from areas around the region. By 1860, the population had grown to 80,792. The Chinese accounted for 61.9 per cent of the number; the Malays and Indians 13.5 and 16.05 per cent respectively; and others, including the Europeans, 8.5 per cent.

The peace and prosperity ended when Japanese aircraft bombed the sleeping city in the early hours of 8 December 1941. Singapore fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942, and was renamed Syonan (Light of the South). It remained under Japanese occupation for three and a half years.

Towards Self-Government

The British forces returned in September 1945 and Singapore came under the British Military Administration. When the period of military administration ended in March 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved. On 1 April 1946, Singapore became a Crown Colony. Penang and Malacca became part of the Malayan Union in 1946, and later the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

Postwar Singapore was a contrast to the prewar country of transient immigrants. The people, especially the merchant class, clamored for a say in the government. Constitutional powers were initially vested in the Governor who had an advisory council of officials and nominated non-officials. This evolved into the separate Executive and Legislative Councils in July 1947. The Governor retained firm control over the colony but there was provision for the election of six members to the Legislative Council by popular vote. Hence, Singapore's first election was held on 20 March 1948.

When the Communist Party of Malaya tried to take over Malaya and Singapore by force, a state of emergency was declared in June 1948. The emergency lasted for 12 years. Towards the end of 1953, the British government appointed a commission under Sir George Rendel to review Singapore's constitutional position and make recommendations for change. The Rendel proposals were accepted by the government and served as the basis of a new constitution that gave Singapore a greater measure of self-government.

The 1955 election was the first lively political contest in Singapore's history. Automatic registration expanded the register of voters from 75,000 to over 300,000, and for the first time, it included large numbers of Chinese, who had manifested political apathy in previous elections. The Labor Front won 10 seats. The Peoples Action Party (PAP), which fielded four candidates, won three seats. David Marshall became Singapore's first Chief Minister on 6 April 1955, with a coalition government made up of his own Labor Front, the United Malays National Organization and the Malayan Chinese Association .

Marshall resigned on 6 June 1956, after the breakdown of constitutional talks in London on attaining full internal self government. Lim Yew Hock, Marshall's deputy and minister for Labor became the Chief Minister. The March 1957 constitutional mission to London led by Lim Yew Hock was successful in negotiating the main terms of a new Singapore Constitution. On 28 May 1958, the Constitutional Agreement was signed in London.

Self-government was attained in 1959. In May that year Singapore's first general election was held to choose 51 representatives to the first fully elected Legislative Assembly. The PAP won 43 seats, gleaning 53.4 percent of the total votes. On June 3, the new Constitution confirming Singapore as a self-governing state was brought into force by the proclamation of the Governor, Sir William Goode, who became the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State). The first Government of the State of Singapore was sworn in on June 5, with Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's first Prime Minister.

The PAP had come to power in a united front with the communists to fight British colonialism. The communists controlled many mass organizations, especially of workers and students. It was an uneasy alliance between the PAP moderates and the pro communists, with each side trying to use the other for its own ultimate objective--in the case of the moderates, to obtain full independence for Singapore as part of a non-communist Malaya; in the case of the communists, to work towards a communist take-over.

The tension between the two factions worsened from 1960 and led to an open split in 1961, with the pro-communists subsequently forming a new political party, the Barisan Sosialis. The other main players in this drama were the Malayans, who, in 1961, agreed to Singapore's merger with Malaya as part of a larger federation. This was also to include British territories in Borneo, with the British controlling the foreign affairs, defense and internal security of Singapore.

The Malaysia Proposal

On 27 May 1961, the Malayan Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, proposed closer political and economic co-operation between the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei in the form of a merger. The main terms of the merger, agreed on by him and Lee Kuan Yew, were to have central government responsibility for defense, foreign affairs and internal security, but local autonomy in matters pertaining to education and labor. A referendum on the terms of the merger held in Singapore on 1 September 1962 showed the people's overwhelming support for PAP's plan to go ahead with the merger.

Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963, and consisted of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo (now Sabah). Brunei opted out. Indonesia and the Philippines opposed the merger. President Sukarno of Indonesia worked actively against it during the three years of Indonesian confrontation.


The merger proved to be short-lived. Singapore was separated from the rest of Malaysia on 9 August 1965, and became a sovereign, democratic and independent nation.

Independent Singapore was admitted to the United Nations on 21 September 1965, and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations on 15 October 1965. On 22 December 1965, it became a republic, with Yusof bin Ishak as the republic's first President.

Thereafter commenced Singapore's struggle to survive and prosper on its own. It also had to create a sense of national identity and consciousness among a disparate population of immigrants. Singapore's strategy for survival and development was essentially to take advantage of its strategic location and the favourable world economy.

Coming of Age

A massive industrialization program was launched with the extension of the Jurong industrial estate and the creation of smaller estates in Kallang Park, Tanjong Rhu, Redhill, Tiong Bahru and Tanglin Halt. The Employment Act and the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act were passed in 1968 to promote industrial peace and discipline among the workforce.

The Economic Development Board was reorganized in 1968 and the Jurong Town Corporation and the Development Bank of Singapore were set up in the same year In 1970, the Monetary Authority of Singapore was established to formulate and implement Singapore's monetary policies.

In 1979, after the shock of two oil crisis, the Government started a program of economic restructuring. This was achieved by modifying education policies, expanding technology and computer education, offering financial incentives to industrial enterprises and launching a productivity campaign.

Public housing was given top priority. New towns sprang up and Housing and Development Board apartments were sold at a low cost. To encourage home ownership, Singaporeans were allowed to use their Central Provident Fund savings to pay for these apartments.

With the British Government's sudden decision in 1967 to withdraw its armed forces from Singapore by the end of 1971, Singapore set out to build up its own defence forces. The Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute was established in 1966 and compulsory national service was introduced in 1967. A Singapore Air Defense Command and a Singapore Maritime Command were set up in 1969. In August 1967, Singapore joined Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand to form the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Singapore entered the 1970s as a politically stable state with a high rate of economic growth. The one-party Parliament that emerged from the 1968 general election became the pattern, with the PAP winning all seats in 1972,1976 and 1980. In the 1984 and 1991 general elections, the PAP won all but two and four seats respectively.

On 28 November 1990, a new chapter opened in Singapore's modern history Goh Cheok Tong became the second Prime Minster of Singapore when he took over the office from Lee Kuan Yew who resigned after having been Prime Minster since 1959.

On 12 August 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, son of Lee Kuan Yew became the third Prime Minister of Singapore. One of his major accomplishments was to propose the building of 2 Integrated Resorts (IR) in Singapore which creates a huge avenue for Singapore's economy. Prior to his appointment as PM, he served as Deputy Prime Minister (1991-2004), Minister of Finance, Minister of Trade & Industry.

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Re: Pr application doubts (need help and advice)

Strong Eagle:
Hard to say... maybe makes a difference, maybe not. What will matter is how much you earn, your educational credentials, how many years of experience you have, and your nationality.

If you're basically just schlepping for the agency so that the company can avoid long term commitment to you plus giving you benefits, then it is probably a bad thing because you're essentially a temp hire.

If you have a specialized skill that is being rented out to companies that need that skill then you're probably OK. For example, project managers are commonly rented out.

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I tried a couple in SG off the back of advice on earlier threads in this forum.

Iris Tailor in lucky plaza was very good and I got shirts for around $150 a piece. The quality is outstanding and the fittings for shirts and suits are much like what JR8 described as far as foundations and care with button holes ;)

I also tried Christian Armani in Far East Plaza and would recommend to stay away. While the pricing is similar - the shirts were done in a single fitting, the quality of the cloth is incomparably worse, and both the cuffs and collar on all of them are coming apart after only 6 months of wear. Unfortunately this was my first experience of tailored clothes so I was somewhat naive about what to expect and ask for during my visit.

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Re: Moving to Singapore next year

Hi Babirye, welcome to the forum.
You could start looking here to get a feel for the opportunities...>

It's a govt site, and all openings by just about any employer have to be advertised there. I.e. local companies, foreign multi-nationals, etc.

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Trevor Noah (South African comedian), sketch drawing parallels between Donald Trump and an African dictator.

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hiii. im in finance too!

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PM me if you have same interest.


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isn't it safer to get a aircon servicing person to do the compressor cleaning? having the skills and the experience to do it makes more sense.

if cost is the issue, perhaps it will be better to go to a diy shop (those in major malls) to check with the sales staff there on how you can clean the compressors on your own.

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Hi everyone,

I am currently living in UK looking to move Singapore next year am seeking a graphic Designer job does any know recommend companies or recuriment agencies looking for designers?

Thanks Faith Babirye

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I know!! It's getting murkier by the day!! Yes the law firm is a registered one and the email sent has an attachment which is a scanned copy of a 1 pager document in the law firm's letter head. It mentions the new LL's name but no other info on him as we have been asking no IC copy Nor any contact details. They are just claiming to represent him and that they are confirming he holds the deposit. Also as you rightly said no other details are provided on it for us to make the payment of rent. Just a statement that we are to pay rent to them. I wish I could sue all of these people to harassment!! It's been 5-7 days of mental torture.

Our geyser has not been repaired till now. The LL refuses to send anyone on weekends. He expects us to take a day off and back saying it requires 3-4 hrs of work. Is It true that plumbers in Singapore work only on weekdays?

We are meeting a law firm tomo to get a formal legal opinion. We are also drawing up the contract for the new apartment. But this issue is always at the back of our mind! No mental peace!!

May I suggest that you get a plumber to come in on a day/time you are available to fix it and bill it to the old LL? It is not reasonable to expect you to take leave to get it fixed. There are 24/7 plumbers available (google for it) although they do charge a premium considering they are same-day services. Other plumbers do work on weekends too but they can be rather packed.

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1. verbal or informal agreements (not in TA) made between old LL and tenants
2. big purchase items/belongings that tenant owns (like TV and gaming consoles)
3. existing problems with the home that requires fixing

I also reassured them that I will honour the TA and informed that the security deposit will be transferred from the old LL to me the new LL and it will be transparent to them.

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Hi Fae, I just moved here yesterday so it would be great to grab a bit to eat. I'm living in China Town which is awesome!

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My wife, who uses our car, arrives at home around 7-7:15pm. If she uses public transportation she arrives 8:30pm. Our son goes to sleep ~9:30pm. Same applies for the mornings. Overrated? Just people live different lives and not everybody follows typical patriarchal model of the male working and the female staying at home.

But also for myself, the difference between a bus and a motorbike is ca 1h. I still prefer to spend it at home where I have always so much to do, with my son, passive or active, rather than on a bus or train. Besides, we would need to pay our nanny to stay 1h longer, so again, it's nothing but pragmatic and nothing psychological in it.

Okay, I got it. Yes, in your circumstances, it does make plenty of sense. In my case, not so much. But seriously, 1 Hr difference b/w bus and motorcycle? You must be doing a lot of riding in that case. My previous setup was something like that, my office was in Changi and home in AMK. Over the TPE, it took me 20 mins by bike. Public transport would have taken me 1 and 1/2 hours. But now, I stay in Tampines and my office is Alexandra road. Bike will probably take me 45 Mins and I would probably save 30 mins each way.

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You can send email for me:!

Anyone recently delivered at Thomson -please share the total bill


would appreciate if anyone with a recent experience of delivering at Thomson (especially with Paul Tseng) could share the total bill (i am foreign and no insurance). Also, please share your experience.

Thanks! Valentina.