Culture and Language

About Singapore - Culture & LanguageAbout Singapore - Culture & LanguageAbout Singapore - Culture & Language

This page covers information on culture and language of Singapore. Understanding the culture and heritage of Singapore, the different races and languages like Singlish.

Singapore Culture

Singapore is a cosmopolitan society where people live harmoniously and interaction among different races are commonly seen. The pattern of Singapore stems from the inherent cultural diversity of the island. The immigrants of the past have given the place a mixture of Malay, Chinese, Indian, and European influences, all of which have intermingled.

Behind the facade of a modern city, these ethnic races are still evident. The areas for the different races, which were designated to them by Sir Stamford Raffles, still remain although the bulk of Singaporeans do think of themselves as Singaporeans, regardless of race or culture. Each still bears its own unique character.

The old streets of Chinatown can still be seen; the Muslim characteristics are still conspicuous in Arab Street; and Little India along Serangoon Road still has its distinct ambience. Furthermore, there are marks of the British colonial influence in the Neo-Classical buildings all around the city.

Each racial group has its own distinctive religion and there are colorful festivals of special significance all year round. Although the festivals are special to certain races, it is nonetheless enjoyed by all.

In Singapore, food is also readily and widely available. There are lots of cuisines to offer. We have, Chinese, Indian, Malay, Indonesian and Western, Italian, Peranakan, Spanish, French, Thai and even Fusion. It is very common to savour other culture's food and some of the food can be very intriguing. Indian food are relatively spicier, whereas Chinese food is less spicier and the Chinese enjoy seafood. Malay cooking uses coconut milk as their main ingredient, that makes their food very tasty.

You can refer to our Eating in Singapore section for a list of recommended food outlets in Singapore.

Religion in Singapore

Most Singaporeans celebrate the major festivals associated with their respective religions. The variety of religions is a direct reflection of the diversity of races living there. The Chinese are predominantly followers of Buddhism, Taoism, Shenism, Christians, Catholics and some considered as 'free-thinkers' (Those who do not belong to any religion). Malays have the Muslims and Indians are Hindus. There is a sizeable number of Muslims and Sikhs in the Indian population.

Religious tolerance is essential in Singapore. In fact, religions often cross racial boundaries and some even merge in unusual ways in this modern country. Younger Singaporeans tend to combine a little of the mysteries of the older generation with the realistic world that they know of today.

Religion is still an integral part of the cosmopolitan Singapore. Many of its most interesting buildings are religious, be it old temples, modern churches, or exotic mosques. An understanding of these buildings do play a part in contributing to the appreciation of their art.

Chinese Temples

Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, and ancestral worship are combined into a versatile mix in Chinese temples.

Followers of the Tao (The Way) adhere to the teachings of the ancient Chinese legend, Lao Tzu. They are concerned with the balance of the Yin and Yang, which are opposite forces of heaven and earth, male and female. Feng Shui, literally translated as wind and water, also originated from Yin and Yang. Ancestral worship is common and the spirits of the dead, like the gods themselves, are appeased with offerings.

Most Buddhists are of the Mahayana school although there are some from the Theravada school. In Singapore, the Buddhist faith is linked with Taoism and the practical doctrine of Confucianism.


The Malays in Singapore are Muslims. A few of the Indians are also Muslims, but even more uncommon are the Chinese Muslims.

Islam has a fundamental influence in the lives of those who follow the Prophet of Allah, Muhammad. The religion involves praying five times a day, eating only "halal" food, fasting during Ramadan, and going to Mecca on the Haj (pilgrimage). Halal food means food that has been specially prepared as according to the religion's dietary requirements.


As the Indian immigrants migrate to Singapore, they brought with them Hinduism. The early temples are still the central points of rituals and festivals, which are held throughout the year.


One will be able to find Christian churches of all denominations in Singapore. They were actually established with the arrival of various missionaries after the coming of Sir Stamford Raffles. Together with Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism, Christianity is considered one of the four main religions today. There is quite a large number of Christians on the island.


Minority faiths are not forgotten. There are at least two synagogues for the Jews and Sikhs. The Zoroastrians and Jains are also represented in Singapore.

Language in Singapore

The four official languages of Singapore are Mandarin, Malay, Tamil and English. English is the most common language used and is the language which unites the different ethnic groups. Children are taught in English at school but also learn their mother tongue to make sure they don't lose contact with their traditions.

Expatriates and foreigners may encounter language problems in the beginning of their stay in Singapore as many Singaporeans use Singlish to communicate. Singlish is a mix of English with other languages mixed into the English, sometimes phrases can end with funny terms like 'lah', 'leh', mah'. Chinese commonly use their own dialects to communicate, and sometimes, inter-dialect groups don't understand one another's language, as the language is vastly different. Except for Hokkien and Teochew, which have a closer link. The Malays use the language among their fellow races and the Indians speak Tamil. But whatever the race or religion, the country's community unite as one nation, where most religious or racial gaps are being bridged.

Singapore English has its origins in the schools of colonial Singapore. In the nineteenth century very few children went to school at all, and even fewer were educated in English. The people who spoke English and sent their children to English medium schools were mainly the Europeans, the Eurasians (people of mixed racial ancestry), some of the small minorities, such as the Jews, some of the Indians and Ceylonese, and also a group of Chinese people usually called the Straits Chinese, who had ancestors of long residence in the region, and who spoke a variety of Malay usually called Baba Malay which was influenced by Hokkien Chinese and by Bazaar Malay.

The fact that all these children would have known Malay probably explains why most of the loan words in Singapore Colloquial English are from Malay. The largest group of teachers were Eurasians, and there were also many teachers from Ceylon and India. European teachers were never more than a quarter of the total teaching staff in a school, and they usually taught the senior classes. These Europeans may have been from Britain (which at that time included Ireland) but were also from the USA, Belgium and France. The children in these schools would have been exposed to many varieties of English.

In the first twenty years of the twentieth century, English medium education became popular for all groups. Girls started going to school in larger numbers too. By the 1950s nearly all children went to school, and the majority were educated in English. By the 1980s. all education was in the medium of English (with children learning another language alongside English).

Singapore English grew out of the English of the playground of these children of various linguistic backgrounds who were learning English at school. As more and more of its people experienced learning English at school, English became widely spoken, alongside Singapore's many other languages. Since Singapore became an independent Republic in 1965, the use of English has increased still further. For many Singaporeans, English is the main language. Many families speak English at home and it is one of the the first languages learnt by about half of the current pre-school children.

Nearly everyone in Singapore speaks more than one language, with many people speaking three or four. Most children grow up bilingual from infancy and learn more languages as they grow up. Naturally the presence of other languages (especially various varieties of Malay and of Chinese) has influenced the English of Singapore. The influence is especially apparent in the kind of English that is used informally, which is popularly called Singlish. Singlish is a badge of identity for many Singaporeans.


Singapore English usually come from other languages spoken in Singapore, especially Malay and Hokkien. Speakers of Singlish are not necessarily aware of which language they are from however.


  • habis - finished
  • makan - to eat
  • chope - to reserve something
  • cheem - difficult, complicated
  • ang mo - a white person
  • rojak - mixed, a mix of
  • liao - finished, the end
  • kiasu - afraid to lose mentality

Speakers of Singlish will usually end his sentence with a distinctive exclamation. The three most common are ah, lah, ley and what.


  • OK lah, bye bye.
  • Don't like that lah.
  • You are going there ah?
  • No parking lots here, what.
  • The price is too high for me lah.
  • And then how many rooms ah?
  • It is very troublesome ley.
  • Don't be like that ley!
  • I'm not at home lah. That's why ah.
Related Page

Re: Cobra and python!

that is so cool!

Re: short term internet contract

I remember M1 have short term broadband package

Re: How soon can I re-enter SG after being refused entry? I will have an IPA for E pass

Yes I am female, professional. No I didn't get a ban. I want to avoid getting a ban all in all as travel to other countries would make it potentially difficult as well. I visited Singapore several times over the last 6 months but not only to Singapore. I was also travelling to 9 other different countries during the same period. I decided to take some time off work and wanted to travel around the world - UK, US, Australia, South and Southeast Asia.

What would be my best bet? Should I wait for the ICA reply, or is the IPA good enough? And how long does ICA reply with an outcome?

Thank you again.

Re: Singapore deputation - Things to Carry + Other Newbie Advice Needed

I had a paragraph, and then said the heck with it, and deleted it. I've done my share of regurgitation here. Let him use google or the very capable search engine on this site. All the answers are there. Or let JR8 write another 500 word reply to him. ;-)

Re: RE: Singapore deputation - Things to Carry + Other Newbie Advice Needed

. What other critical items am I missing out?

Thanks - Kapil

Probably a bit of search here, and Google would help a lot

Instead of throwing a generic wish list

Or so I feel

Re: 27F from Scotland just moved and looking for people to hang out with and explore singapore

Hi, I just moved to Singapore less than two weeks ago and I'm keen to meet people who want to hang out, have a few drinks and explore Singapore! I'm 27 and have been an expat for 5 years but this is my first time in Singapore. I'm loving it so far and just looking to widen my social circle beyond work friends. Let me know if you want to meet up, I'm really keen to go to Sentosa etc and explore that soon so if anyone is keen let me know and we can get something arranged :)


Do you have freckles and ginger coloured hair?

Re: Acne problems

Are you washing your razor in alcohol after shaving to disinfect it?

Re: German wife's LTVP/LTVP+ chances

Not entirely dissimilar (though reversed roles) to my wife and I, at the time of our first LTVP application.

In our case, when you file the application, if necessary the SVP is extended in order that the entire process can be seen through. So there might be little reason to submit it the very day she lands. I'd take a little time for her to unpack, check she has all her dox in hand etc., photocopies, passport pix, etc etc. Then you can proceed knowing you're giving it your absolute best shot. Presumably you have downloaded the forms, and she already knows she has every document required? It's waaay easier sorting this out before she arrives, than later on realising she needs original or copy dox from back home.

One thing you don't mention that perhaps counts is any employment history she has. If they see she has some experience, might not be sitting around twiddling her thumbs, and better yet can perhaps bring talents, skills and experience to SGs workplace then that is only to your advantage.

- No I don't see being EU 'counting against her'. There is probably some benefit in being of Chinese genes, so in that way being DE/EU is a disadvantage, but there's nothing you can do about that, and IMHO it is not something to concern yourself about.

On the LTVP application form these days there is a simple tick-box that reads (roughly) 'Would you like your application to additionally be considered for an LTVP+'. I don't see any harm in ticking it. Maybe they won't grant the '+' this time, who knows, perhaps they'll want to see how you cope on one income. But if so, as and when you come to renew it I'd tick it again. ... Maybe you'll get the '+' first time, it's impossible to say.

p.s. PR is another matter, and the rules/sands shift on it the whole time. I'd focus on getting the LTVP, the +, then later PR...

Good luck to you, let us know how you get on.

Singapore deputation - Things to Carry + Other Newbie Advice Needed


I'm being deputed to Singapore from Mumbai, India, in a few weeks time.

My workplace is at the western end of the island and hence I'm looking at Jurong (E), Boon Lay, Choa Chu Kang, Clementi and Bukit Timah for potential accommodation options. The accommodation would be a shared one with no stiff roommate requirements. Any suggestions with what to expect in which area would be welcome.

Is there a checklist of items that I should be carrying along from Mumbai? I will not be cooking much and mostly lunch and dinner would be done out of the house. I'll probably need an adapter for the electronics. What other critical items am I missing out?

Thanks - Kapil

Re: RE: How soon can I re-enter SG after being refused entry? I will have an IPA for E pass

Hi I need some help regarding re-entry into Singapore.

I am a previous E pass holder and has since returned to Philippines after my contract ended. 6 months ago my previous employer had contacted me and offered me a job at a different jobsite and we started with the paper works. 2 weeks ago I was refused entry to Sg for visiting too frequently. I have written an appeal to ICA but no reply yet. I expect my IPA to be issued within the next week, my question is will I be able to enter Sg again? I'm aware that I will be pulled into the ICA office again for questioning. Should I wait for an outcome for my appeal before I try to re enter Sg?
I will have enough cash with me, hotel booking and return ticket as well as I want to mark sure all things are in order because I really need this job.

Thank you and any help would be appreciated.

A lady I presume, frequently travelling to Singapore .. no guesses why ICA did an A to A.

With the IPA if you come back, should not have problems, unless you got a ban.

How many times did you visit Singapore after your last job here ?

Re: 27F from Scotland just moved and looking for people to hang out with and explore singapore


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Re: RE: JOb Change in Epass

I am in Epass. I am planning to change job. If my new employer applies Epass, is there any notifications will be sent to my current employer from MOM. I am thinking of telling my current employer after my new epass gets approved... Pls give me sugestion.

Your current employer will not be notified ...

... but if they have a very very kiasu HR, they may know it as soon as your new employer has submitted the application.

JOb Change in Epass

I am in Epass. I am planning to change job. If my new employer applies Epass, is there any notifications will be sent to my current employer from MOM. I am thinking of telling my current employer after my new epass gets approved... Pls give me sugestion.


Re: Singapore Elections and Immigration Policy Changes

@SMS. So how many MPs do you think the oppo's will see returned, based upon their own merits rather than NMPs?

Is Asia unique in being unsuited to democracy; and if so why do think this is?

I reckon they will return all they currently have and I would not be surprised if they actually pick up another small GRC and a single seat. But which ones I don't know, but I do know that the smell of death hasn't reached most of the disgruntled voters so they will still vote with the emotions and not with their heads. I'd really like to see either Aljunied or Hougang returned to the PAP. Aljunied for personal reasons and Hougang or Aljunied just to show the WP that their wins were just a fluke as well, and the disgruntled are starting to see the world for what it is.

On their own merits? Zero. None have any merit as far as I can see.

I don't know if any continent is more or less unsuited to democracy. I'm not sure, but it seems to me that for an Asian country to pull ahead, they need to be lead (read that "pulled") kicking and screaming to the next level. Harry Lee was just such a person. Could it ever be duplicated? That's the magic question. I seriously doubt it (and still have a quasi-parliamentary/democratic style of governance). Of course the whole world thought Lee was taking on a sure failure so, I really don't know.

Re: Singapore Elections and Immigration Policy Changes

Hmmm not wishing to nit-pick too much but Farage has never been an MP in the UK so cannot have been ousted. UKIP did have two MPs prior to the last election both Tory defectors, Carswell won his seat and the other chap whose name escapes me didn't. Farage is still an MEP (Member of the European Parliament) as he has been since 1999.