Culture and Language

About Singapore - Culture & LanguageAbout Singapore - Culture & LanguageAbout Singapore - Culture & Language

This page covers information on culture and language of Singapore. Understanding the culture and heritage of Singapore, the different races and languages like Singlish.

Singapore Culture

Singapore is a cosmopolitan society where people live harmoniously and interaction among different races are commonly seen. The pattern of Singapore stems from the inherent cultural diversity of the island. The immigrants of the past have given the place a mixture of Malay, Chinese, Indian, and European influences, all of which have intermingled.

Behind the facade of a modern city, these ethnic races are still evident. The areas for the different races, which were designated to them by Sir Stamford Raffles, still remain although the bulk of Singaporeans do think of themselves as Singaporeans, regardless of race or culture. Each still bears its own unique character.

The old streets of Chinatown can still be seen; the Muslim characteristics are still conspicuous in Arab Street; and Little India along Serangoon Road still has its distinct ambience. Furthermore, there are marks of the British colonial influence in the Neo-Classical buildings all around the city.

Each racial group has its own distinctive religion and there are colorful festivals of special significance all year round. Although the festivals are special to certain races, it is nonetheless enjoyed by all.

In Singapore, food is also readily and widely available. There are lots of cuisines to offer. We have, Chinese, Indian, Malay, Indonesian and Western, Italian, Peranakan, Spanish, French, Thai and even Fusion. It is very common to savour other culture's food and some of the food can be very intriguing. Indian food are relatively spicier, whereas Chinese food is less spicier and the Chinese enjoy seafood. Malay cooking uses coconut milk as their main ingredient, that makes their food very tasty.

You can refer to our Eating in Singapore section for a list of recommended food outlets in Singapore.

Religion in Singapore

Most Singaporeans celebrate the major festivals associated with their respective religions. The variety of religions is a direct reflection of the diversity of races living there. The Chinese are predominantly followers of Buddhism, Taoism, Shenism, Christians, Catholics and some considered as 'free-thinkers' (Those who do not belong to any religion). Malays have the Muslims and Indians are Hindus. There is a sizeable number of Muslims and Sikhs in the Indian population.

Religious tolerance is essential in Singapore. In fact, religions often cross racial boundaries and some even merge in unusual ways in this modern country. Younger Singaporeans tend to combine a little of the mysteries of the older generation with the realistic world that they know of today.

Religion is still an integral part of the cosmopolitan Singapore. Many of its most interesting buildings are religious, be it old temples, modern churches, or exotic mosques. An understanding of these buildings do play a part in contributing to the appreciation of their art.

Chinese Temples

Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, and ancestral worship are combined into a versatile mix in Chinese temples.

Followers of the Tao (The Way) adhere to the teachings of the ancient Chinese legend, Lao Tzu. They are concerned with the balance of the Yin and Yang, which are opposite forces of heaven and earth, male and female. Feng Shui, literally translated as wind and water, also originated from Yin and Yang. Ancestral worship is common and the spirits of the dead, like the gods themselves, are appeased with offerings.

Most Buddhists are of the Mahayana school although there are some from the Theravada school. In Singapore, the Buddhist faith is linked with Taoism and the practical doctrine of Confucianism.


The Malays in Singapore are Muslims. A few of the Indians are also Muslims, but even more uncommon are the Chinese Muslims.

Islam has a fundamental influence in the lives of those who follow the Prophet of Allah, Muhammad. The religion involves praying five times a day, eating only "halal" food, fasting during Ramadan, and going to Mecca on the Haj (pilgrimage). Halal food means food that has been specially prepared as according to the religion's dietary requirements.


As the Indian immigrants migrate to Singapore, they brought with them Hinduism. The early temples are still the central points of rituals and festivals, which are held throughout the year.


One will be able to find Christian churches of all denominations in Singapore. They were actually established with the arrival of various missionaries after the coming of Sir Stamford Raffles. Together with Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism, Christianity is considered one of the four main religions today. There is quite a large number of Christians on the island.


Minority faiths are not forgotten. There are at least two synagogues for the Jews and Sikhs. The Zoroastrians and Jains are also represented in Singapore.

Language in Singapore

The four official languages of Singapore are Mandarin, Malay, Tamil and English. English is the most common language used and is the language which unites the different ethnic groups. Children are taught in English at school but also learn their mother tongue to make sure they don't lose contact with their traditions.

Expatriates and foreigners may encounter language problems in the beginning of their stay in Singapore as many Singaporeans use Singlish to communicate. Singlish is a mix of English with other languages mixed into the English, sometimes phrases can end with funny terms like 'lah', 'leh', mah'. Chinese commonly use their own dialects to communicate, and sometimes, inter-dialect groups don't understand one another's language, as the language is vastly different. Except for Hokkien and Teochew, which have a closer link. The Malays use the language among their fellow races and the Indians speak Tamil. But whatever the race or religion, the country's community unite as one nation, where most religious or racial gaps are being bridged.

Singapore English has its origins in the schools of colonial Singapore. In the nineteenth century very few children went to school at all, and even fewer were educated in English. The people who spoke English and sent their children to English medium schools were mainly the Europeans, the Eurasians (people of mixed racial ancestry), some of the small minorities, such as the Jews, some of the Indians and Ceylonese, and also a group of Chinese people usually called the Straits Chinese, who had ancestors of long residence in the region, and who spoke a variety of Malay usually called Baba Malay which was influenced by Hokkien Chinese and by Bazaar Malay.

The fact that all these children would have known Malay probably explains why most of the loan words in Singapore Colloquial English are from Malay. The largest group of teachers were Eurasians, and there were also many teachers from Ceylon and India. European teachers were never more than a quarter of the total teaching staff in a school, and they usually taught the senior classes. These Europeans may have been from Britain (which at that time included Ireland) but were also from the USA, Belgium and France. The children in these schools would have been exposed to many varieties of English.

In the first twenty years of the twentieth century, English medium education became popular for all groups. Girls started going to school in larger numbers too. By the 1950s nearly all children went to school, and the majority were educated in English. By the 1980s. all education was in the medium of English (with children learning another language alongside English).

Singapore English grew out of the English of the playground of these children of various linguistic backgrounds who were learning English at school. As more and more of its people experienced learning English at school, English became widely spoken, alongside Singapore's many other languages. Since Singapore became an independent Republic in 1965, the use of English has increased still further. For many Singaporeans, English is the main language. Many families speak English at home and it is one of the the first languages learnt by about half of the current pre-school children.

Nearly everyone in Singapore speaks more than one language, with many people speaking three or four. Most children grow up bilingual from infancy and learn more languages as they grow up. Naturally the presence of other languages (especially various varieties of Malay and of Chinese) has influenced the English of Singapore. The influence is especially apparent in the kind of English that is used informally, which is popularly called Singlish. Singlish is a badge of identity for many Singaporeans.


Singapore English usually come from other languages spoken in Singapore, especially Malay and Hokkien. Speakers of Singlish are not necessarily aware of which language they are from however.


  • habis - finished
  • makan - to eat
  • chope - to reserve something
  • cheem - difficult, complicated
  • ang mo - a white person
  • rojak - mixed, a mix of
  • liao - finished, the end
  • kiasu - afraid to lose mentality

Speakers of Singlish will usually end his sentence with a distinctive exclamation. The three most common are ah, lah, ley and what.


  • OK lah, bye bye.
  • Don't like that lah.
  • You are going there ah?
  • No parking lots here, what.
  • The price is too high for me lah.
  • And then how many rooms ah?
  • It is very troublesome ley.
  • Don't be like that ley!
  • I'm not at home lah. That's why ah.
Related Page

Re: PR chances for Japanese

Strong Eagle:

Again, this is false, false, false. He is a director for his own company. He is normally resident because of his EP. He doesn't need any kind of outside director because JunJun is considered to be normally resident, that is, his primary address is in Singapore.

And yet, you will not stop with your stupid nonsense to the contrary just because you seem to think that one sentence on the ACRA web page is the end all, be all.

A citizen is normally resident. A PR is normally resident. An EP is normally resident. A DP is normally resident. A LTVP is normally resident. ANY pass that grants you more than 183 days in Singapore makes you normally resident.

Again, YOU mislead the OP with statements that are simply false. The comprehension problem lies with you, not me.

I'll say it again. A person can be a director of a company if he holds an employment pass issued to that company. JunJun doesn't need any other director. If you weren't so damn thick and so sure of your own infallibility, you'd understand that this is how foreign companies setup shop in Singapore all the time.

From: ... _final.pdf

You provide false information that only confuses the conversation.

Re: Employment pass being delayed


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Re: 22F looking for people to hang out with

hi aki, I want to join this group chat on whatsapp. I already private messaged u my number. Add me in the group chat on whatsapp. I also messaged u. please reply me. so I will not be worried if anything bad happen to u. take care

Re: looking for preschool for indian kid

let me clear, it was 500-700 SGD per month.
and i m new at singapore so if u hv any valuable information about all the things plz share Rather thn confusing me

Re: Obligations before employing a LTVP holder

Noooo, that's not what I said. You have a degree, so you won't have any problems I wouldn't think.

What I said was those with O or A levels will no longer find it a cakewalk to a position here if they are a trailing spouse. If you have a degree you shouldn't have any problems at all. The administrative positions are normally filled by O/A levels grads but there were situations where LoC were given out to spouses who didn't even finish their O's or High School but because they were cheap (trailing spouses rarely get market value as the employers know you are not in a demanding position but trying to find a job).

However things have changed somewhat now, with the allowing of Foreign Spouses on LTVPs being allowed to obtain a LoC. I think this is why it is now not as easy to pick up the low paying positions any more as it was to level out the playing field as the DP holder could work (with EP spouse) but the LTVP spouse of a PR/SC couldn't. The DP/LoC was tied to the EP. EP lost, so was the LoC. But it's different with the LoC tied to a SGC. It does, however, have to be renewed annually (not a big deal) but it's now longer term and not tied to the expire of the EP so qualify for the position is a wee bit more difficult - not for a degree holder but for anybody lesser educated.

Re: Need a legal help

I think your best bet is to call a lawyer, usually they will answer a couple of questions in order to better understand the potential case (usually at no charge) in order to see if it's even got a chance at potential resolution in your favour. I'd be hesitant to offer any advice as a lot has changed in the dozen years since I left that industry to become a HR Manager. I have a sneaky suspicion that you will have to go through the Australian Courts if your contracts were sent to the company's offices there.

Re: Obligations before employing a LTVP holder


Thanks. So for a university educated mid-career professional who is not a superstar but not a chump either, getting an LoC with a LTVP+ is just as hard as getting an EP?

Re: RE: Re: Entering/Exiting Singapore with Student loan debt


And I thought I am paranoid

Bankruptcy in Singapore isn't that dirty as other countries.

Re: Entering/Exiting Singapore with Student loan debt

She didnt want her mom to find out shes bankrupt for obvious reasons hahaha.

Anyway thanks for the help! I would buy you a beer if I could!

Re: RE: Re: Entering/Exiting Singapore with Student loan debt

I did a search for her and paid the money. The results came back saying
"There is no receiving and adjudication/bankruptcy orders made in the respect of the above mentioned"

Does this mean she is 100% safe?

(Stupid question, i know but i want to be sure. Also my last question)

It means she has no serious drama. Legally. As of NOW :)

As I said, as long as she's communicating with mummy and no legal letters have been received at her address, you could have saved the IPTO search fees.

Re: Entering/Exiting Singapore with Student loan debt

I did a search for her and paid the money. The results came back saying
"There is no receiving and adjudication/bankruptcy orders made in the respect of the above mentioned"

Does this mean she is 100% safe?

(Stupid question, i know but i want to be sure. Also my last question)

New in Singapore - 34F from UK

Hi there

Not long arrived and looking to explore and make friends! Dinner, drinks, exploring would be welcomed!


Re: RE: Re: RE: Re: PR chances for Japanese


Short also no work. No read as yes, black read as white. No can win.

Sometimes people want A specific reply and no other reply will satisfy them. In that case, I give up - than prolonging a pointless conversation ;) I know, I forget that rule, but I try to stick to that as much as possible ...

Re: RE: Re: looking for preschool for indian kid


+1 : D