Culture and Language

About Singapore - Culture & LanguageAbout Singapore - Culture & LanguageAbout Singapore - Culture & Language

This page covers information on culture and language of Singapore. Understanding the culture and heritage of Singapore, the different races and languages like Singlish.

Singapore Culture

Singapore is a cosmopolitan society where people live harmoniously and interaction among different races are commonly seen. The pattern of Singapore stems from the inherent cultural diversity of the island. The immigrants of the past have given the place a mixture of Malay, Chinese, Indian, and European influences, all of which have intermingled.

Behind the facade of a modern city, these ethnic races are still evident. The areas for the different races, which were designated to them by Sir Stamford Raffles, still remain although the bulk of Singaporeans do think of themselves as Singaporeans, regardless of race or culture. Each still bears its own unique character.

The old streets of Chinatown can still be seen; the Muslim characteristics are still conspicuous in Arab Street; and Little India along Serangoon Road still has its distinct ambience. Furthermore, there are marks of the British colonial influence in the Neo-Classical buildings all around the city.

Each racial group has its own distinctive religion and there are colorful festivals of special significance all year round. Although the festivals are special to certain races, it is nonetheless enjoyed by all.

In Singapore, food is also readily and widely available. There are lots of cuisines to offer. We have, Chinese, Indian, Malay, Indonesian and Western, Italian, Peranakan, Spanish, French, Thai and even Fusion. It is very common to savour other culture's food and some of the food can be very intriguing. Indian food are relatively spicier, whereas Chinese food is less spicier and the Chinese enjoy seafood. Malay cooking uses coconut milk as their main ingredient, that makes their food very tasty.

You can refer to our Eating in Singapore section for a list of recommended food outlets in Singapore.

Religion in Singapore

Most Singaporeans celebrate the major festivals associated with their respective religions. The variety of religions is a direct reflection of the diversity of races living there. The Chinese are predominantly followers of Buddhism, Taoism, Shenism, Christians, Catholics and some considered as 'free-thinkers' (Those who do not belong to any religion). Malays have the Muslims and Indians are Hindus. There is a sizeable number of Muslims and Sikhs in the Indian population.

Religious tolerance is essential in Singapore. In fact, religions often cross racial boundaries and some even merge in unusual ways in this modern country. Younger Singaporeans tend to combine a little of the mysteries of the older generation with the realistic world that they know of today.

Religion is still an integral part of the cosmopolitan Singapore. Many of its most interesting buildings are religious, be it old temples, modern churches, or exotic mosques. An understanding of these buildings do play a part in contributing to the appreciation of their art.

Chinese Temples

Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, and ancestral worship are combined into a versatile mix in Chinese temples.

Followers of the Tao (The Way) adhere to the teachings of the ancient Chinese legend, Lao Tzu. They are concerned with the balance of the Yin and Yang, which are opposite forces of heaven and earth, male and female. Feng Shui, literally translated as wind and water, also originated from Yin and Yang. Ancestral worship is common and the spirits of the dead, like the gods themselves, are appeased with offerings.

Most Buddhists are of the Mahayana school although there are some from the Theravada school. In Singapore, the Buddhist faith is linked with Taoism and the practical doctrine of Confucianism.


The Malays in Singapore are Muslims. A few of the Indians are also Muslims, but even more uncommon are the Chinese Muslims.

Islam has a fundamental influence in the lives of those who follow the Prophet of Allah, Muhammad. The religion involves praying five times a day, eating only "halal" food, fasting during Ramadan, and going to Mecca on the Haj (pilgrimage). Halal food means food that has been specially prepared as according to the religion's dietary requirements.


As the Indian immigrants migrate to Singapore, they brought with them Hinduism. The early temples are still the central points of rituals and festivals, which are held throughout the year.


One will be able to find Christian churches of all denominations in Singapore. They were actually established with the arrival of various missionaries after the coming of Sir Stamford Raffles. Together with Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism, Christianity is considered one of the four main religions today. There is quite a large number of Christians on the island.


Minority faiths are not forgotten. There are at least two synagogues for the Jews and Sikhs. The Zoroastrians and Jains are also represented in Singapore.

Language in Singapore

The four official languages of Singapore are Mandarin, Malay, Tamil and English. English is the most common language used and is the language which unites the different ethnic groups. Children are taught in English at school but also learn their mother tongue to make sure they don't lose contact with their traditions.

Expatriates and foreigners may encounter language problems in the beginning of their stay in Singapore as many Singaporeans use Singlish to communicate. Singlish is a mix of English with other languages mixed into the English, sometimes phrases can end with funny terms like 'lah', 'leh', mah'. Chinese commonly use their own dialects to communicate, and sometimes, inter-dialect groups don't understand one another's language, as the language is vastly different. Except for Hokkien and Teochew, which have a closer link. The Malays use the language among their fellow races and the Indians speak Tamil. But whatever the race or religion, the country's community unite as one nation, where most religious or racial gaps are being bridged.

Singapore English has its origins in the schools of colonial Singapore. In the nineteenth century very few children went to school at all, and even fewer were educated in English. The people who spoke English and sent their children to English medium schools were mainly the Europeans, the Eurasians (people of mixed racial ancestry), some of the small minorities, such as the Jews, some of the Indians and Ceylonese, and also a group of Chinese people usually called the Straits Chinese, who had ancestors of long residence in the region, and who spoke a variety of Malay usually called Baba Malay which was influenced by Hokkien Chinese and by Bazaar Malay.

The fact that all these children would have known Malay probably explains why most of the loan words in Singapore Colloquial English are from Malay. The largest group of teachers were Eurasians, and there were also many teachers from Ceylon and India. European teachers were never more than a quarter of the total teaching staff in a school, and they usually taught the senior classes. These Europeans may have been from Britain (which at that time included Ireland) but were also from the USA, Belgium and France. The children in these schools would have been exposed to many varieties of English.

In the first twenty years of the twentieth century, English medium education became popular for all groups. Girls started going to school in larger numbers too. By the 1950s nearly all children went to school, and the majority were educated in English. By the 1980s. all education was in the medium of English (with children learning another language alongside English).

Singapore English grew out of the English of the playground of these children of various linguistic backgrounds who were learning English at school. As more and more of its people experienced learning English at school, English became widely spoken, alongside Singapore's many other languages. Since Singapore became an independent Republic in 1965, the use of English has increased still further. For many Singaporeans, English is the main language. Many families speak English at home and it is one of the the first languages learnt by about half of the current pre-school children.

Nearly everyone in Singapore speaks more than one language, with many people speaking three or four. Most children grow up bilingual from infancy and learn more languages as they grow up. Naturally the presence of other languages (especially various varieties of Malay and of Chinese) has influenced the English of Singapore. The influence is especially apparent in the kind of English that is used informally, which is popularly called Singlish. Singlish is a badge of identity for many Singaporeans.


Singapore English usually come from other languages spoken in Singapore, especially Malay and Hokkien. Speakers of Singlish are not necessarily aware of which language they are from however.


  • habis - finished
  • makan - to eat
  • chope - to reserve something
  • cheem - difficult, complicated
  • ang mo - a white person
  • rojak - mixed, a mix of
  • liao - finished, the end
  • kiasu - afraid to lose mentality

Speakers of Singlish will usually end his sentence with a distinctive exclamation. The three most common are ah, lah, ley and what.


  • OK lah, bye bye.
  • Don't like that lah.
  • You are going there ah?
  • No parking lots here, what.
  • The price is too high for me lah.
  • And then how many rooms ah?
  • It is very troublesome ley.
  • Don't be like that ley!
  • I'm not at home lah. That's why ah.
Related Page

Re: Everyone I know is leaving or already left

In the pastiche SGn kids never stray more than a few hours from their parents homes, and return every weekend to have their laundry done, and mum's home-cooked food. There is the perpetual promise of HDB and CPF, the eternal future security blanket. Even if free-thinking and risk-taking (professionally) were inculcated, why would most choose to? Those things are socially dangerous; 'The nails that sticks up', etc.
I recall from hiring locals into banking some highly intelligent individuals, and most who got to grips with what was required. But none who dazzled by grabbing the chance and surprising management how they took it further (ideas, reporting, suggested revised and better procedures etc).
At a more jaundiced level, we imports were the ones doing up to 80hr weeks, whereas they at the end of a long day - 6pm phhh) often had a pressing reason to go home.
SG is so cushty, I wonder if the locals can ever have what it takes, *the rabid hunger*, to compete in a globally free-market.
And if they don't does it matter, when they can legislate their citizens must be employed by any company coming to SGs shores?

question au pair

hello we are moving to Singapore and would like to know if it is legal to recruit an au pair from our home country? or from another country? we are currently in the uae and it is not possible to sponsor the visa for an au pair in the uae. however i would like to understand if this would be an option in Singapore and i dont seem to find the answer on the internet... thanks

Re: American girl in SG, 30's, new friends - drinks - fun!

plz count me in

Re: Come join our group!

yup I wud be interested.Im 35.plz pm me if its fine

Re: F/34 Looking for new friends to hangout with

I'm usman and will be interested to hang out .I'm 35

looking for friends

Hi I'm 35 Male and a civil servant by profession.Im doing a post graduate degree from Singapore and moved here about few months ago.Looking for friends and open minded females to hang out and drink

Re: F/30 Recently relocated to Singapore and looking to make new friends

Hi Chetna
I'm Usman and also recently moved to Singapore.Also looking for friends to hang out.

Re: RE: Re: MBBS Doctor jobs in Singapore

Hi..My husband recently obtained a position in Singapore as a regional manager and currently holds an EP. We have collectively made a decision to move to Singapore with me obtaining a spouse dependent visa. I'm a doctor from Malaysia with 4 years of experience (excluding my housemanship) in ObGyn.
I graduated from a college in Malaysia which isn't recognized by the SMC.
I was told to apply for a job as a clinical associate holding a temporary registration.
Can I know how do I about this?
Thank you

Clinical associate in ObGyn ? Your choices are limited to SGH and KKH I guess.

You need to go the Singhealth / NHG website and look for openings.

Is your degree recognised by Malaysian Medical Council ?

To improve your chances, start reading up for MRCOG Part 1

Re: RE: Re: Salary Details Publicised

Nosey Stinkaporean: Hey you ah, what your bonus? Got increment?

Casual Expat; No freaking clue mate; I don't bother looking at my payslips.

Cue meltdown in Stinkaporean's mind.
I had a newly joined colleague who didn't know his pay was not credited, almost till next pay cycle. The natives were amazed that a guy can go a month without pay ... the guy was like "most payment is cashless so I didn't realise .. .. "

Re: RE: Re: Advice Needed: NS liability for new PR


Anyway, the military is a character builder. It made me into a real character as some here can attest to. Of course, when I was in the military they were shooting at me with real bullets and RPGs, so it might be a little different.

Now its laser tags and artillery simulators, most of the real stuff is fired overseas .. especially those self propelled guns.

Re: 25 old Female wants to make friends in singapore

Sounds good. Perhaps on whatsapp? :)

Re: Advice Needed: NS liability for new PR

I can put in a good word for you at CMPB if you're that keen to do NS. After all, if they could find me a way to get back to 32 again, I'd be more than happy to do two years NS! In fact, I'd give up a eye-tooth even. ;-)

Anyway, the military is a character builder. It made me into a real character as some here can attest to. Of course, when I was in the military they were shooting at me with real bullets and RPGs, so it might be a little different.

Re: Advice Needed: NS liability for new PR

You almost certainly get a waiver. I did at younger age in similar circumstances.

Re: Advice Needed: NS liability for new PR

Just to clarify. I feel extremely fortunate to have had our PR application approved. Feeling foolish is more about the fact that we could have swapped the primary applicant had I made myself aware of the NS liability.
Anyway, thanks for the reply. After reviewing previous posts as suggested it seems the likelihood is rather slim for someone of my age.

Re: Franchising opportunities in Singapore ? how to enter the market ?

All I know is I no longer answer phone calls with Latvian country codes...